WEB 2.0

Introduction to Web 2.0

Basics of Web 2.0

Web 2.0 is a term describing the trend in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aims to enhance creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among users. These concepts have led to the development and evolution of web-based communities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites, wikis, RSS & Blogs.

The term became notable after the first O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004. According to Tim O'Reilly: Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.

An overview of Web 2.0 & the products associated with it:

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Characteristics of Web 2.0

  1. Users can build on the interactive facilities of 'Web 1.0' to provide 'Network as platform' computing, to run software applications entirely through a browser.

  2. Users can own the data on a Web 2.0 site and exercise control over that data.

  3. Web 2.0 sites often feature a rich, user-friendly interface based on Ajax, Flex or similar rich media with social networking aspects.

  4. Rich user experience, user participation, dynamic content, metadata, web standards and scalability.

  5. Openness, freedom and collective intelligence by way of user participation.

Web 2.0 Technology Overview

Web 2.0 websites include some of the following features/techniques:

  • Cascading Style Sheets

  • Social classification, Social indexing, and Social tagging.

  • XML based API’s.

  • Rich Internet application techniques, often Ajax and Flash-based.

  • Semantically valid XHTML and HTML markup.

  • Usage of data in RSS or Atom feeds.

  • Mashups, merging content from different sources, client- and server-side
    Weblog-publishing tools

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Core Competencies of Web 2.0 Companies

  • Services, not packaged software, with cost-effective scalability

  • Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data sources that get richer as more people use them

  • Trusting users as co-developers

  • Harnessing collective intelligence

  • Leveraging the long tail through customer self-service

  • Software above the level of a single device

  • Lightweight user interfaces, development models

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Web 2.0 Based Business Models

  • Level-0: Applications work offline and online. Examples are MapQuest, Yahoo! Local, and Google Maps

  • Level-1: Applications operate offline but gain features online. Examples are Writely (now Google Docs & Spreadsheets) and iTunes (because of its music-store portion).

  • Level-2: Applications can operate offline but gain advantages from going online. Examples are Flickr, which benefits from its shared photo-database and from its community-generated tag database.

  • Level-3: Applications, deriving their effectiveness from the inter-human connections and from the network effects that Web 2.0 makes possible. Examples are eBay, Craigslist, Wikipedia, del.icio.us, Skype, AdSense.

Type of websites in Web 1.0 & Web 2.0

web 2.0 Web 1.0 ---> Web 2.0
Ofoto --> Flickr
Akamai --> BitTorrent
mp3.com --> Napster
Britannica Online --> Wikipedia
personal websites --> blogging
evite --> upcoming.org
domain name speculation --> search engine optimization
page views --> cost per click
publishing --> participation
content management systems --> wikis

Social Media

Social media is a term that defines the various activities which integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words, pictures, videos and audio. Audience can participate in social media by adding comments or even editing the stories themselves. Social media can take different forms like Internet forums, message boards, weblogs, wikis, podcasts, pictures and video. Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, video logs, wall-postings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing, and voice over IP & others.

Examples of social media applications

Microblogs / Presence apps: Twitter and Pownce Warcraft.

Virtual worlds/Gaming: Second Life

Wikis: Wikipedia

Photo/Video sharing: Flickr and You tube

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U s e r - G e n e rated content

User generated content refers to various kinds of media content, publicly available, that are produced by end-users. All digital media technologies such as question-answer databases, digital video, blogging, podcasting, mobile phone photography and wikis. Conversational or two-way media is a key characteristic of so-called Web 2.0. Sometimes User Generated Content can constitute only a portion of a website. For example on Amazon.com the majority of content is prepared by administrators, but numerous user reviews of the products being sold are submitted by regular visitors to the site.

Types of User-Generated Content

  • Discussion boards

  • Blogs

  • Wikis

  • Social networking sites

  • News Sites

  • Trip planners

  • Customer review sites

  • Experience or photo sharing sites

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Major Websites Based on User Generated Content

  • Dailymotion

  • Digg

  • eBay

  • Epinions

  • Facebook

  • Flickr

  • Helium.com

  • MySpace

  • Picasa

  • Revver

  • Second Life

  • TripAdvisor

  • TypePad

  • Urban Dictionary

  • Widgetbox

  • Wikipedia

  • WordPress

  • Yelp

  • YouTube

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Social Networking

Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision. Social networking websites function like an online community of internet users. Depending on the website in question, many of these online community members share a common interest such as hobbies, religion, or politics. Once you are granted access to a social networking website you can begin to socialize. This socialization may include reading the profile pages of other members and possibly even contacting them. Example include MySpace, FriendWise, FriendFinder, Yahoo! 360, Facebook, Orkut, and Classmates.

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Social Media Optimization

Social media optimization (SMO) is a set of methods for generating publicity through social media, online communities and community websites. SMO methods include adding RSS feeds, adding a "Digg This" button, blogging and incorporating third party community functionalities like Flickr photo slides and galleries or YouTube videos. The focus is on driving traffic from sources other than search engines.

5 Rules of Social Media Optimization

  • Increase your linkability

  • Make tagging and bookmarking easy

  • Reward inbound links

  • Help your content travel

  • Encourage the mashup

social media optimization


The term podcasting derives its name from Apple's iPod, but we don’t need an ipod or any music player to listen to it. Podcasting is a new type of online media delivery. You publish selected audio files via the internet and allow your users to subscribe via an RSS feed to automatically receive new files. Podcasting involves producing your own audio files (usually in MP3, WMA formats) and then publishing them online. They're then downloaded to subscribers' iPods, cellphones, iTunes directories, or other locations to listen to.

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Mashups are an exciting genre of interactive Web applications that draw upon content retrieved from external data sources to create entirely new and innovative services. They aggregate and stitch together third-party data. ChicagoCrime.org, One of the first mashups to gain widespread popularity, the Web site mashes crime data from the Chicago Police Department's online database with cartography from Google Maps. Types of Mashups.

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Mapping mashups

The advent of mashups was Google's introduction of its Google Maps API. To mash all sorts of data (everything from nuclear disasters to no. of houses) onto maps. Video and photo mashups Because the content providers have metadata associated with the images (such as where & what of the pics), can mash photos with other information that can be associated with the metadata.

News mashups

News sources have used syndication technologies like RSS and Atom for News mashups to provide personalized news services.


A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. Blogs are typically updated daily using software. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominantly. Blogs are usually written by one person.


When we post to the blogs regularly, the most recent post remains at the top. All previous posts are stored in the archive section. Archives are usually arranged in the form of months.


The blog is not a monologue but a conversation. You can give feedback on almost everything. In the comments section we can add name, email and a link to your own blog & feedback.

web web


Micro-blogging is a form of blogging that allows users to write brief text updates (usually 140 characters) and publish them. These messages can be submitted including text messaging, instant messaging, email, MP3 or the web. The most popular service is Twitter. There are other microblogging sites like Powence, Jaiku & others. The Twitter has become such a popular tool that 100’s of tools are available to track Twitter. Google has also Stepped into Microblogging service with the purchase of Jaiku website.

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RSS (Rich Site Summary) is a format for delivering regularly changing web content. Many news-related sites, weblogs and other online publishers syndicate their content as an RSS Feed to whoever wants it.

Benefits of RSS

RSS solves a problem for people who regularly use the web. It allows you to easily stay informed by retrieving the latest content from the sites you are interested in. You save time by not needing to visit each site individually.

RSS Reader

Feed Reader or News Aggregator software allow you to grab the RSS feeds from various sites and display them for you toread and use. A variety of RSS Readers are available for different platforms. Eg: Google reader, Newsgator, etc

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  • Web 2.0 is going to play a major role in the transformation of Internet. The Web 2.0 Companies have already become billion dollar business. Many fortune 500 companies have taken stakes in the Web 2.O companies. Facebook, Twitter, Myspace are some of the Top Web 2.0 Companies.

  • The Web 2.0 is such a powerful voice now that US presidential debates are done in Youtube, Myspace & others. Web 2.0 applications, based on user contribution and collaboration, network effects and user communities, can only be realized if users actively participate.

  • Because any Web 2.0 application will be a highly dynamic project, flexibility is the most important criterion when deciding on the technology platform. In order to increase the safety of the investment, scalability should also be carefully considered.

  • Web 2.0 is a merging of technologies, people, and attitude that has created an important shift in the way we think about and use the Internet.